No, it would have to be repaired first.
You could also use one of the abilities that move other ships, if it’s pushed completely clear of the terrain.
Not on the same turn, unless it had an extra action available. It uses the ship’s standard action for the turn, but is not specifically a move action.
It’s only for the duration of the current turn, not the round. In a multiplayer game, the ship with Parley would have to use it on each opposing player individually to avoid being attacked.
The 5 result applies only to the current player’s turn, so it’ll shut defensive abilities and continuously active effects like point reducers, but won’t do anything to own-turn abilities like a captain, a helmsman, or an ability generator.